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Northumberland Alnwick, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Morpeth, Hexham, Berwick-upon-Tweed

History of Northumberland
Once part of the Roman Empire and the scene of many wars between England and Scotland, Northumberland has a long and complicated history. This explains the many castles in Northumberland, including among the better-known those at Bamburgh, Dunstanburgh, Warkworth and Alnwick.

The region of present-day Northumberland once formed the core of the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria. Northumberland is called the "cradle of Christianity" in England, because it was on Lindisfarne, a tidal island north of Bamburgh, also called Holy Island, that Christianity flourished when monks from Iona were sent to convert the English. Lindisfarne was the home of the Lindisfarne Gospels and Saint Cuthbert, who is buried at Durham Cathedral.

Bamburgh Castle is the historic capital of Northumberland, the "royal" castle from before the unification of England under one monarch. The capital of Northumberland now, however, may be thought to be the market town of Alnwick, mainly because the Duke of Northumberland has his home there; or may be thought of as Morpeth, since Northumberland County Council's offices are in that town.

The lords of Northumberland once wielded inordinate power in British affairs because, as the Lords of the Marches, they were entrusted with protecting England from Scottish invasion.

Northumberland has a history of revolt and rebellion against the government, as seen in the Rising of the North in Tudor times. These revolts were usually led by the then Dukes of Northumberland, the Percy family. Shakespeare mentions one of the Percys, Harry Hotspur. The county was also a centre for Catholicism in England, as well as of Jacobite feelings after the Restoration. Northumberland became a sort of wild county, where outlaws and border reivers hid from the law, as it was largely rural and unpopulated. However, the frequent cross-border skirmishes and accompanying local lawlessness largely subsided after the union of the crowns of Scotland and England under King James VI and I.

Northumberland played a vital role in the industrial revolution. The region's coalfields fuelled industrial expansion in other areas of the country, and the need to transport the coal from the collieries to the Tyne led to the development of the first railways. Ship-building and armaments manufacture were other important industries.

Today, Northumberland is still largely rural. As the least populated county in England, it commands much less power in British affairs than in times past. In recent years the county has enjoyed considerable growth in tourism due to its scenic beauty and the abundant evidence of its historical significance.

Abberwick Acklington Acomb Adderstone Akeld Allendale Allenheads Alnham Alnmouth Alnwick Alwinton Amble Ancroft Anick Annitsford Apperley Dene Ashington Aydon Bamburgh Bardon Mill Barrasford Barrasford Park Barrow Burn Baybridge Beadnell Beal Beanley Bebside Bedlington Belford Bellingham Bellshill Belsay Beltingham Berrington Berwick Hill Berwick upon Tweed Bickerton Biddlestone Bilton Bingfield Birkshaw Birling Birtley Black Heddon Blanchland Blindburn Blyth Bolam Bolton Bothal Boulmer Bowsden Bradford - Berwick Bradford - Castle Morpeth Branch End Brandon Branton Branxton Bridge End - Hexham Broome Park Broomhaugh Broomhill Broomley Brownieside Broxfield Brunton - Alnwick Buckton Budle Burradon Burton Butteryhaugh Byrness Bywell Callaly Cambo Cambois Capheaton Carham Carr Shield Carrycoats Hall Carterway Heads Cartington Causey Park Charlton Chathill Chatton Chesterwood Cheswick Chillingham Chollerford Chollerton Choppington Christon Bank Clarewood Clifton Coalcleugh Coanwood Cockle Park Colwell Corbridge Cornhill on Tweed Coupland Cowpen Cramlington Craster Cresswell Crookham Dalton - Castle Morpeth Darras Hall Denwick Detchant Dilston Diptonmill Dirt Pot Dissington Ditchburn Doddington Donkleywood Downham Doxford Druridge Duddo Dunstan Dunstan Steads Dye House Eachwick Eals Earle Earsdon Easington East Chevington East Cramlington East Elrington East Hartford East Horton East Kyloe East Learmouth East Lilburn East Ord East Sleekburn East Thirston East Wallhouses East Woodburn Easy Holywell Edington Edlingham Eglingham Elford Elishaw Ellingham Ellington Elrington Elsdon Eltringham Elwick Embleton Eshott Espley Etal Ewesley Falloden Fallowfield Falstone Fawdon Felkington Fellside Felton Fenham Fenrother Fenton Fenwick - Berwick Fenwick - Castle Morpeth Flodden Flotterton Ford Forestburn Gate Fourstones Gatehouse Gilsland Glanton Glanton Pike Glororum Gloster Hill Goswick Great Bavington Great Ryle Great Swinburne Great Tosson Great Whittington Greenhaugh Greenhead Grindon Guide Post Guidepost Gunnerton Guyzance Hadston Haggerston Hallington Halton Halton Lea Gate Halton Shields Haltwhistle Hampeth Harbottle Harehope Harlow Hill Harnham Hartburn Hartley Hartside Harwood Haugh Head Hauxley Hawkhill Haydon Bridge Healey Hebron Heddon on the Wall Hedley on the Hill Henshaw Hepburn Hepple Hepscott Hesleyside Hethpool Hetton Steads Heugh Hexham High Angerton High Buston High Callerton High Pit High Trewhitt High Warden Higham Dykes Hindley Hipsburn Hirst Holburn Holy Island Holystone Holywell Horsley - Otterburn Horsley - Wylam Houghton Howick Howtel Humbleton Humshaugh Ilderton Ingoe Ingram Keirsleywell Row Kielder Kilham Kiln Pit Hill Kimmerston Kirkharle Kirkhaugh Kirkheaton Kirknewton Kirkwhelpington Knarsdale Knowesgate Kyloe Lambley Lanehead Lanehead Langley Langley Castle Langley on Tyne Lanton Leadgate Lesbury Linshiels Linton Colliery Little Ryle Little Swinburne Little Whittington Littleharle Tower Littlehoughton Loanend Longframlington Longhirst Longhorsley Longhoughton Longwitton Lorbottle Low Angerton Low Buston Low Espley Low Gate Low Hauxley Lowick Lucker Lynemouth Matfen Meldon Melkridge Mickley Square Middleton - Berwick Middleton - Castle Morpeth Middleton Hall Milbourne Milfield Mindrum Minsteracres Mitford Mohope Molesden Morpeth Murton Nedderton Nedderton Village Nelson Village Nesbit Nether Warden Netherton Netherwitton New Alston New Bewick New Delaval New Hartley New Ridley New Shoreston Newbiggin by the Sea Newbrough Newham - Berwick Newlands - Tynedale Newsham Newstead Newton - Harbottle Newton - Tynedale Newton by the Sea Newton on the Moor Newton Underwood Newtown - Alnwick Newtown - Berwick Newtown - East Lilburn Ninebanks Norham North Brunton North Charlton North Gosforth North Hazelrigg North Middleton North Seaton North Seaton Colliery North Side North Sunderland Nunnykirk Nunwick Ogle Old Bewick Old Town Ordley Otterburn Ouston Outchester Ovingham Ovington Painshawfield Park Park End Pauperhaugh Pawston Pegswood Pigdon Plenmeller Ponteland Powburn Prendwick Pressen Preston Prestwick Prudhoe Radcliffe Ramshope Raylees Red Row - Castle Morpeth Redburn Redesmouth Reedsmouth Rennington Rhosferig Riding Mill Ridley Ridsdale Rochester Rock Roddam Roseden Ross Rothbury Rothley Rowfoot Rudchester Ruffside Ryal Saltwick Sandhoe Scot's Gap Scotland Gate Scrainwood Scremerston Seahouses Seaton Seaton Delaval Seaton Sluice Seghill Settlingstones Shadfen Shankhouse Sharperton Shawdon Hall Sheepwash Shidlaw Shilbottle Shillmoor Shoresdean Shoreston Shoreswood Shotleyfield Shotton - Berwick Shotton - Castle Morpeth Simonburn Sinderhope Slaggyford Slaley Smeafield Snitter South Broomhill South Charlton South Hazelrigg South Middleton - Berwick South Newsham Sparty Lea Spindlestone Spittal Stakeford Stamford Stamfordham Stannersburn Stannington Stanton Steel Stobhill Stobswood Stocksfield Stonehaugh Stonehouse Swarland Swindon Swinhoe Tarset The Chesters Thockrington Thorngrafton Thornington Thornley Gate Thornton Throphill Thropton Thrunton Todburn Togston Tranwell Tritlington Troughend Tughall Tweedmouth Ulgham Unthank - Berwick Wall Wall Houses Walwick Warden Waren Mill Warenford Warenton Wark - Berwick Wark - Tynedale Warkworth Warton West Allerdean West Chevington West Fleetham West Holywell West Horton West Learmouth West Sleekburn West Thirston West Weetwood West Woodburn West Wylam Westend Town Whalton Whamley Whitfield Whitley Chapel Whittingham Whitton Whittonstall Widdrington Widdrington Station Willimoteswick Wingates Woodhorn Woodhorn Demesne Wooler Wooperton Wylam

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